Search Results1 to 24 of 47
Effectiveness of a Summer Intervention Program on Improving Kindergarten Readiness in At-Risk Students
Effectiveness of a Summer Intervention Program on Improving Kindergarten Readiness in At-Risk Students
Nicole Billak
While a wealth of knowledge exists supporting the need for early intervention in improving kindergarten readiness, very few programs have offered an evidence-based solution to providing remediation for at-risk children demonstrating weak academic or social readiness ...
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While a wealth of knowledge exists supporting the need for early intervention in improving kindergarten readiness, very few programs have offered an evidence-based solution to providing remediation for at-risk children demonstrating weak academic or social readiness skills during the kindergarten registration process. Often, children who are identifies as having weak readiness skills at kindergarten registration will need to wait until school begins in the fall to receive intervention, putting students further at-risk for school failure. The United Way of Mercer County’s Success By 6™ program offers a 6-week intervention for students identified during registration as having poor readiness skills. This study determined the effectiveness of Success By 6™ on improving both academic and social readiness skills deemed necessary for school success. A total of 216 students completed the Kindergarten Readiness Test at the beginning and the end of the program. Teachers also rated students’ social emotional learning using the Social Skills Improvement System Social Emotional Learning Progress Monitoring Scales. Results from paired sample t-tests indicated a statistically significant improvement in students’ academic readiness, t(215) = 16.58 p < .001, after completing the program. Students also made statistically significant gains in social emotional skills needed for kindergarten readiness, t(231) = 22.13, p < .001, after participating in the program. Both calculations revealed large effect sizes (d = 1.13 and 1.45, respectively). Implications of this research can effect social change at local, state, and federal levels in order to expand evidence-based practices in early childhood education.
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2021
A Phenomenological Qualitative Inquiry: Assistive Technology Use or Discontinued Use in the School Setting
A Phenomenological Qualitative Inquiry: Assistive Technology Use or Discontinued Use in the School Setting
Kendra Bittner
This phenomenological qualitative inquiry was designed to explore the phenomenon of using assistive technology (AT) or putting AT “on the shelf” in the school setting. The purpose of this study was to identify factors involved in educators’ use or discontinued use AT...
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This phenomenological qualitative inquiry was designed to explore the phenomenon of using assistive technology (AT) or putting AT “on the shelf” in the school setting. The purpose of this study was to identify factors involved in educators’ use or discontinued use AT in the school setting. The researcher wanted to learn more about educator efficacy with implementing AT and interviewed 10 participants of various stakeholder roles in the AT decision-making process. Participants shared their insight through one of two options: a live interview or a written questionnaire. Key findings were generated through emergent themes from the sample’s responses. Findings indicated that participants used AT continuously when there was buy-in from IEP team members. AT was discontinued by this sample due to lack of buy-in and challenges with the technology. Further research stemming from this study includes the exploration of instructional coaching as an approach to support educators with the use of AT in the school setting.
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2021
Trauma-Informed Care
Trauma-Informed Care
Exploring the Perceptions of Secondary General Education Teachers
Nicole Burson-Belcher
Trauma exposure during adolescence is common and has dramatically increased nationally. Trauma exposure is associated with emotional, mental, and behavioral problems, such as, depression, anxiety, delinquency, substance abuse, suicidality, and posttraumatic stress di...
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Trauma exposure during adolescence is common and has dramatically increased nationally. Trauma exposure is associated with emotional, mental, and behavioral problems, such as, depression, anxiety, delinquency, substance abuse, suicidality, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Darnell et al., 2019). While new legislation, programs, and school leadership have sought to address these problems, no significant changes have been documented. At the forefront, teachers witness students’ mental health needs, in conjunction with declining academic performance, behavior, socialization, and emotional state. Further studies must be conducted to gain the teachers’ perspective on trauma-informed care (TIC) in order to provide critical information to educational leadership and policymakers in hopes of solving or at least reducing these problems. Such information was gathered in this phenomenological research study, where interviews were conducted with five secondary general education teachers within public school systems in Southwestern Pennsylvania. Data was collected by asking the participants open-ended questions about their perceptions of trauma-informed care and students with a trauma background. The research questions focused on teacher’s knowledge of TIC, school policies on TIC, the vital components, and critical issues of providing TIC to students, the importance of addressing trauma-based mental health needs, and ways districts can provide more support for teachers. Next, the data, via transcribed interviews, was hand coded to ensure a rich and in-depth description is obtained through analyzing data for nuance and phraseology. Using the hand coding through the iterative approach, the investigator explored the major themes and subthemes within the data by analyzing the frequency of the word or phrases used most often, comparing participant responses, while using guiding theories and research questions. Based upon the results of this study, the following respective themes emerged: secondary general education teachers’ understanding of trauma-informed care is varied; communication, differentiation, and flexibility are current supports implemented to address students’ with a trauma background; overall professional development related to trauma-informed care is lacking; and barriers to addressing and supporting students exposed trauma are lack of professional development, training, confidentiality, retraumatization, and lack of communication. Ultimately, these research findings may enhance forthcoming professional development, trainings, best practices, and established literature pertaining to trauma-informed care.
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2022
Perspectives of special education teachers on students with disabilities in an inclusive setting
Perspectives of special education teachers on students with disabilities in an inclusive setting
A comparative analysis
Ronald Steven Carlisle
In this study, the educational discussion focused on inclusion, methods for teaching in inclusive classrooms, and positive aspects of inclusion for academic growth. Also studied were the perspectives of special education teachers on students with disabilities in an i...
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In this study, the educational discussion focused on inclusion, methods for teaching in inclusive classrooms, and positive aspects of inclusion for academic growth. Also studied were the perspectives of special education teachers on students with disabilities in an inclusion setting. Inclusion in public school districts is a very debated and sensitive subject that has been controversial for many years. Inclusion denotes the education of students with disabilities and students that do not have disabilities in the same classroom setting. The data collected from this study was analyzed using measures of central tendency, specifically the mode and percentages and the chi-square test of independence. Data analysis was conducted to determine the perspectives of special education teachers on the controversy of inclusion practices for students with disabilities in two separate clusters, grades K-3 and 4-6, respectively. The qualitative analysis results revealed the presence of two main themes regarding teacher attitudes on inclusion: (a) Risks of inclusion are special education student lack of success, increased burden on teachers, and class disruptions; and (b) Inclusion can benefit all students. Results of the quantitative analysis revealed no statistically significant relationship between years spent in a special education environment and teacher inclusion attitudes. These results suggest that teachers’ views on inclusion are varied and are not significantly influenced by their years of experiences teaching in a special education environment. Recommendations for future research include changes to the study design and data collection techniques. Implications for positive social change include increased teacher confidence, diverse learning opportunities for all students, and the potential for a positive shift in societal beliefs about special education student capabilities and the benefits of inclusion.
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2021
Perspectives of special education teachers on students with disabilities in an inclusive setting
Perspectives of special education teachers on students with disabilities in an inclusive setting
A comparative analysis
Ronald Steven Carlisle
In this study, the educational discussion focused on inclusion, methods for teaching in inclusive classrooms, and positive aspects of inclusion for academic growth. Also studied were the perspectives of special education teachers on students with disabilities in an i...
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In this study, the educational discussion focused on inclusion, methods for teaching in inclusive classrooms, and positive aspects of inclusion for academic growth. Also studied were the perspectives of special education teachers on students with disabilities in an inclusion setting. Inclusion in public school districts is a very debated and sensitive subject that has been controversial for many years. Inclusion denotes the education of students with disabilities and students that do not have disabilities in the same classroom setting. The data collected from this study was analyzed using measures of central tendency, specifically the mode and percentages and the chi-square test of independence. Data analysis was conducted to determine the perspectives of special education teachers on the controversy of inclusion practices for students with disabilities in two separate clusters, grades K-3 and 4-6, respectively. The qualitative analysis results revealed the presence of two main themes regarding teacher attitudes on inclusion: (a) Risks of inclusion are special education student lack of success, increased burden on teachers, and class disruptions; and (b) Inclusion can benefit all students. Results of the quantitative analysis revealed no statistically significant relationship between years spent in a special education environment and teacher inclusion attitudes. These results suggest that teachers’ views on inclusion are varied and are not significantly influenced by their years of experiences teaching in a special education environment. Recommendations for future research include changes to the study design and data collection techniques. Implications for positive social change include increased teacher confidence, diverse learning opportunities for all students, and the potential for a positive shift in societal beliefs about special education student capabilities and the benefits of inclusion.
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2021
Teachers' Attitudes Towards Inclusion and the Effect on Professional Development
Teachers' Attitudes Towards Inclusion and the Effect on Professional Development
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Joyce A. Carr
Inclusive education has increased for students with disabilities within our public schools since the reauthorization of IDEA ( 1997). This change has resulted in a paradigm shift for both general and special education teachers. Research has shown the success of inclu...
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Inclusive education has increased for students with disabilities within our public schools since the reauthorization of IDEA ( 1997). This change has resulted in a paradigm shift for both general and special education teachers. Research has shown the success of inclusive education is impacted by many factors, one being the attitude of the teachers. Attitude is comprised of three components, Behavioral, Cognitive and Affective (Gregory & Noto, 2012). Understanding what component is a strength or an area that could use improvement will enable educational leaders to develop professional development and training opportunities to address their educators' gaps in attitude in regards to inclusive education. This study identified whether there was a relationship between teacher attitude about inclusion and their teaching assignment, level at which they teach and/or years of teaching experience. A survey was conducted resulting in 219 participants completing the necessary information to be included in the research, which included three demographic questions, as well as a nine item Likert scale questionnaire. General education teachers made up 69.90% of the participants, special education teachers made up 30.10%. Elementary educators were 58% of the respondents, secondary were 42%. Regarding years of teaching experiences for the participants, 7.3% had 0-3 years, 11.9% had 4-9 years and the largest majority of respondents, 80.80%, had ten years or more. After receiving the survey for this quantitative study, responses were analyzed using SPSS, descriptive statistics, Cronbach a, t-Tests, ANOVA and multiple linear regression. Findings of this study indicated general education teachers have a lower level of agreement than their special education colleagues in both the cognitive and affective components of attitude towards inclusion for students with disabilities. Results also indicated that teachers with more than ten years of teaching experience have lower cognitive agreement than those who have taught for fewer years. Lastly, the study showed there was no significant difference in regards to the three components based on the grade level teachers taught. From this study, recommendations for professional development and trainings, as well as future research, were addressed.
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2018
Teachers' Attitudes Towards Inclusion and the Effect on Professional Development
Teachers' Attitudes Towards Inclusion and the Effect on Professional Development
Joyce A. Carr
Inclusive education has increased for students with disabilities within our public schools since the reauthorization of IDEA ( 1997). This change has resulted in a paradigm shift for both general and special education teachers. Research has shown the success of inclu...
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Inclusive education has increased for students with disabilities within our public schools since the reauthorization of IDEA ( 1997). This change has resulted in a paradigm shift for both general and special education teachers. Research has shown the success of inclusive education is impacted by many factors, one being the attitude of the teachers. Attitude is comprised of three components, Behavioral, Cognitive and Affective (Gregory & Noto, 2012). Understanding what component is a strength or an area that could use improvement will enable educational leaders to develop professional development and training opportunities to address their educators' gaps in attitude in regards to inclusive education. This study identified whether there was a relationship between teacher attitude about inclusion and their teaching assignment, level at which they teach and/or years of teaching experience. A survey was conducted resulting in 219 participants completing the necessary information to be included in the research, which included three demographic questions, as well as a nine item Likert scale questionnaire. General education teachers made up 69.90% of the participants, special education teachers made up 30.10%. Elementary educators were 58% of the respondents, secondary were 42%. Regarding years of teaching experiences for the participants, 7.3% had 0-3 years, 11.9% had 4-9 years and the largest majority of respondents, 80.80%, had ten years or more. After receiving the survey for this quantitative study, responses were analyzed using SPSS, descriptive statistics, Cronbach a, t-Tests, ANOVA and multiple linear regression. Findings of this study indicated general education teachers have a lower level of agreement than their special education colleagues in both the cognitive and affective components of attitude towards inclusion for students with disabilities. Results also indicated that teachers with more than ten years of teaching experience have lower cognitive agreement than those who have taught for fewer years. Lastly, the study showed there was no significant difference in regards to the three components based on the grade level teachers taught. From this study, recommendations for professional development and trainings, as well as future research, were addressed.
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2018
Examining Teachers’ Attitudes Toward the Inclusion of Students Using Alternate Standards in Regular Standards Core Academic Classes
Examining Teachers’ Attitudes Toward the Inclusion of Students Using Alternate Standards in Regular Standards Core Academic Classes
Wendy Daniels Stewman
Creating a fully inclusive educational environment continues to be a topic for educational reform. Children with disabilities have the right to access their education in the Least Restrictive Environment. In the United States, this right is protected by the Individua...
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Creating a fully inclusive educational environment continues to be a topic for educational reform. Children with disabilities have the right to access their education in the Least Restrictive Environment. In the United States, this right is protected by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004). Approximately 13.3% of the total number of students with disabilities in the United States are educated in a separate setting. In comparison, 49.2% of all students with a disability in the United States identified as having a cognitive impairment continue to be educated in a separate class setting (U.S. Department of Education, 2019). This study will use mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative data) analysis to examine the attitude of middle school teachers toward the inclusion of students with a cognitive impairment who access their curriculum using alternate standards in the regular education class setting, available training, and needed resources. This study identified factors which influence teacher attitudes toward the inclusion of students using alternate standards, available training, and teacher perceptions for needed resources for an effective inclusion program at the middle school level. The information from the study will be used to provide recommendations to school leaders related to improving supports, training, and services for teachers with the goal of increasing the participation of students using alternate standards in the regular education setting.
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2021
Perceptions and Pragmatics of Therapy Dog Implementation in Schools
Perceptions and Pragmatics of Therapy Dog Implementation in Schools
Janet Garchinsky
The benefits of the application of therapy dogs have been well documented. Studies related to therapy dogs have shown success in reducing stress and anxiety, improving behavior and self-esteem, increasing reading scores, promoting socialization and motivation, increa...
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The benefits of the application of therapy dogs have been well documented. Studies related to therapy dogs have shown success in reducing stress and anxiety, improving behavior and self-esteem, increasing reading scores, promoting socialization and motivation, increasing rates of de-escalation, and helping younger children develop empathy. Common concerns related to the use of therapy dogs have previously been documented. These concerns include child and animal welfare, animal hygiene, zoonotic disease, and fear or cultural differences. Concerns such as these may cause schools to deny the use of therapy dogs in their facilities. The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine what problems have manifested in schools and how they compare to concerns documented by previous studies. Staff in Pennsylvania schools were surveyed to identify what, if any, problems arose during the implementation of therapy dog programs within their districts, and whether staff perceptions changed after implementation. Results from this study can assist school stakeholders in decision-making and policy development related to therapy dog implementation. Despite problems that have manifested, including those specific to K-12 schools, staff perspectives of therapy dogs became more favorable after implementation.
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2022
An Examination of the Special Education Cyclical Monitoring Process through a Socio-Technical System’s Lens
An Examination of the Special Education Cyclical Monitoring Process through a Socio-Technical System’s Lens
A Case Study of a Suburban Pittsburgh School District
Christina Garczewski
The current study used a socio-technical system’s (STS) lens to examine how a suburban Pittsburgh school district applies the cyclical monitoring process. The use of a qualitative research method to examined how school districts and how school administrators use the ...
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The current study used a socio-technical system’s (STS) lens to examine how a suburban Pittsburgh school district applies the cyclical monitoring process. The use of a qualitative research method to examined how school districts and how school administrators use the cyclical monitoring process in special education to provide a foundation for developing appropriate regulations that guide in ensuring students with special needs receive adequate formal education. The researcher collected and discussed information about the participation of school administrators in using a cyclical monitoring process for decision-making at the district and building level through interviewing. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the collected data. All of the participants in this study demonstrated basic knowledge of the CMCI process and the impacts this process has on special education policies, procedures, and practices within the district. While each participant demonstrated a different level of understanding of how compliance monitoring enhances the services and programs offered in the district, all five participants recognized the benefits and needs for the CMCI process. All administrators interviewed described the CMCI process as a positive process to evaluate the district’s programming and reflect upon areas that need improvement. Common themes identified in this study included: resources/programming, interventions, and parent engagement. Based on this study, it can be concluded that the increase of administrators’ knowledge and participation in the CMCI process will improve compliance with special education regulations as well as improve education for all students with disabilities.
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2022
A Survey Approach to Effects of Work Relates Stress Among Special Education Teachers
A Survey Approach to Effects of Work Relates Stress Among Special Education Teachers
Jessica Hall-Wirth
Teacher stress studies suggest that teacher stress has become progressively heightened. Researchers have acknowledged that teachers are stressed, and in turn, there has been an increase in burnout and turnover within the field. Seemingly, even with the magnitude of a...
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Teacher stress studies suggest that teacher stress has become progressively heightened. Researchers have acknowledged that teachers are stressed, and in turn, there has been an increase in burnout and turnover within the field. Seemingly, even with the magnitude of attention dedicated to preventing occupational stress, the prevalence is growing. In response, this study aimed to understand special education teachers and the stressors within their occupation. This study used a questionnaire using a Likert scale and opened ended questions to gain a better understanding of the stressors and overall well-being of special education teachers. The mixed methods approach allowed for a comprehensive look at 45 K-12 special education teachers within four school districts in Western Pennsylvania. The data was collected from April to May of 2018 and used the themes: (a) working conditions, (b) professional responsibilities, (c) student needs, and (d) student behavior to categorize the data. Data suggested that the working conditions and professional responsibilities provided the most stressors for special education teachers. The questionnaire also provided insight on an individual’s inability to differentiate between types of stressors. The implications of these findings for future research, professional development, and wellness education are discussed within this study.
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2018
A Survey Approach to Effects of Work Relates Stress Among Special Education Teachers
A Survey Approach to Effects of Work Relates Stress Among Special Education Teachers
Jessica Hall-Wirth
Teacher stress studies suggest that teacher stress has become progressively heightened. Researchers have acknowledged that teachers are stressed, and in turn, there has been an increase in burnout and turnover within the field. Seemingly, even with the magnitude of a...
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Teacher stress studies suggest that teacher stress has become progressively heightened. Researchers have acknowledged that teachers are stressed, and in turn, there has been an increase in burnout and turnover within the field. Seemingly, even with the magnitude of attention dedicated to preventing occupational stress, the prevalence is growing. In response, this study aimed to understand special education teachers and the stressors within their occupation. This study used a questionnaire using a Likert scale and opened ended questions to gain a better understanding of the stressors and overall well-being of special education teachers. The mixed methods approach allowed for a comprehensive look at 45 K-12 special education teachers within four school districts in Western Pennsylvania. The data was collected from April to May of 2018 and used the themes: (a) working conditions, (b) professional responsibilities, (c) student needs, and (d) student behavior to categorize the data. Data suggested that the working conditions and professional responsibilities provided the most stressors for special education teachers. The questionnaire also provided insight on an individual’s inability to differentiate between types of stressors. The implications of these findings for future research, professional development, and wellness education are discussed within this study.
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2018
Augmented and Virtual Realities in Special Education Contexts
Augmented and Virtual Realities in Special Education Contexts
A Meta-Analysis
Toriel Herman
The augmented and virtual reality applications literature base spans more than 30 years with one of the first studies conducted by Meredith Bricken in 1991. With the advances in technology, researchers are increasingly examining the use of augmented reality (AR) and ...
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The augmented and virtual reality applications literature base spans more than 30 years with one of the first studies conducted by Meredith Bricken in 1991. With the advances in technology, researchers are increasingly examining the use of augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) within educational contexts, more specifically special education contexts. VR is one of the fastest growing technologies (Nuguri, Calyam, Oruche, Gulhane, Valluripally, Stichter, & He, 2021) and AR is growing rapidly showing advances in interaction, navigation, and tracking within education, entertainment, business, medicine, and other settings (Ablyaev, Abliakimova, & Seidametova, 2020). Despite AR and VR demonstrating documented success with enriching learning opportunities and task performances (Billingsley, Smith, Smith, & Meritt, 2019; Bricken, 1991; Nuguri et al., 2021), there is limited research on applying these programs directly within a school setting for students with disabilities. To understand the effectiveness of AR and VR, a meta-analysis of six studies was conducted using hierarchical linear modeling focusing on functional, transitional, and social skills. Participants included 18 students ages 6-15-years-old all with a special education diagnosis (i.e., Intellectual Disability or Autism). Results suggest that these interventions are effective in developing functional, transitional, and social skills with students with disabilities. Most notably, participants aged 14-15 years old showed the greatest effect estimates. There were no differences for sex. Limitations and potential future directions in supporting students with disabilities are discussed.
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2021
Effects of an iPad as a Prompting Device on Increasing Independence Skills in Elementary Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Effects of an iPad as a Prompting Device on Increasing Independence Skills in Elementary Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Stephanie M. Hindman
Students with autism spectrum disorder can experience challenges in acquiring the necessary adaptive skills to successfully transition out of high school. These challenges can prevent them from achieving independence, making them reliant on adults for everyday tasks ...
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Students with autism spectrum disorder can experience challenges in acquiring the necessary adaptive skills to successfully transition out of high school. These challenges can prevent them from achieving independence, making them reliant on adults for everyday tasks and having a restrictive impact on their level of involvement in their school and community. Current research is exploring the use of iPads as prompting tools on the acquisition of adaptive skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder, specifically with individuals at the middle and high school level (Bouck, Savage, Meyer, Taber-Doughty, & Hunley, 2014; Gardner & Wolfe, 2015; Plavnick, Sam, Hume, & Odom, 2013). The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an iPad with the FileMaker app to promote independence skills by presenting daily living tasks through video and static picture prompting to third through sixth grade students with autism. A multiple probe design was utilized across three daily living skills and replicated across four participants to determine the effectiveness of an iPad with the FileMaker app as a prompting tool. Results indicate that participants could select a desired prompt type and that some participants could self-prompt through task steps for various skills without adult intervention. All participants were able to decrease the mean percentage of steps completed independently correct from the initial probe phase to the iPad intervention phase. In addition, participants were able to maintain high levels of performance in follow-up and maintenance probes.
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2017
New Elementary School Teachers' Perceptions of Classroom Management
New Elementary School Teachers' Perceptions of Classroom Management
Emily Hoffmann
New teachers leave their profession at an alarmingly high rate. Though many factors can be contributing to these high attrition rates, new teachers identify classroom management as one of their biggest challenges (Thompson, 2010). Considering this commonly reported c...
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New teachers leave their profession at an alarmingly high rate. Though many factors can be contributing to these high attrition rates, new teachers identify classroom management as one of their biggest challenges (Thompson, 2010). Considering this commonly reported challenge, this research study sets forth to understand how disruptive behavior in classrooms can impact job satisfaction for new teachers. Furthermore, this research study identifies the perspectives of new elementary school teachers relative to their classroom management, and gain insight into how professional development or training opportunities may impact new elementary school teachers’ perceptions on classroom management. The methodologies used in this study include quantitative and qualitative methods. An online questionnaire with both open-ended and closed-ended questions were completed by participants. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data from the closed-ended responses in the questionnaire, and qualitative data was gathered and grouped into codes, which were then supported by themes. The three major themes that were supported by the data in this study include (a) behavior disruptions that occur in the classroom have a direct impact on new elementary school teachers job satisfaction, (b) the 7 research-based classroom interventions and supports are not all found to be effective for most new elementary school teachers, and (c) training and professional development opportunities to support classroom management are lacking. Results of the data suggest that new elementary school teachers experience behavior disruptions in the classroom that impact overall job satisfaction, and minimal training opportunities are being reported to help support classroom management. Additionally, the 7 research-based classroom management interventions were not all effective for participants. Recommendations for future research include larger sample size. Implications for positive change include increased job satisfaction and higher retention rates among new elementary school teachers.
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2022
Examining the Effects of Class Size on Student Achievement in the Mohawk Area School District
Examining the Effects of Class Size on Student Achievement in the Mohawk Area School District
An Individual Participant Meta-Analytic Investigation
Lorree Houk
The issue of class size is a contentious issue in American education. While there is substantial empirical support for the existence of a negative correlation between class size and student achievement, numerous practical difficulties prevent schools from being able ...
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The issue of class size is a contentious issue in American education. While there is substantial empirical support for the existence of a negative correlation between class size and student achievement, numerous practical difficulties prevent schools from being able to further shrink class sizes. Policy-makers and educators need to achieve a more precise understanding of the degree to which class sizes make contributions to student achievement, as only such an understanding can allow decision-makers to set an effective class size policy. Educators have indicated that with smaller class sizes they are able to produce better student achievement results in reading and mathematics. With the increase in teacher accountability, class size is a topic discussed at the school district level. This independent meta-analytic investigation occurred within the Mohawk Area School District. The study sample included 93 reading classrooms and 97 mathematics classrooms ranging from grade levels kindergarten through eighth grade. The purpose of this quantitative case study based on statistical meta-analysis as to calculate the effect size of class size on student achievement in the Mohawk Area School District, Grades K-8. This purpose was achieved through calculating the effect size using Cohen's d. The i-Ready assessment was used as the standardized measure to calculate the effect of class size on achievement in reading and math. The analysis of this investigation indicates that there is no meaningful effect of class size on reading and math performance. These results are important considerations for the Mohawk Area School District as it faces budget constraints that impact the ability of the district to make class size decisions in the best interest of the staff and students.
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2017
The Efficacy of Equine-assisted Activities on Social Outcomes of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder
The Efficacy of Equine-assisted Activities on Social Outcomes of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder
A Qualitative Case Study
Trisha Huston
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have shown improvement through the use of various therapeutic approaches. Identifying these approaches that engage individuals with ASD is essential in facilitating opportunities for lessening the impact of symptoms. A ...
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Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have shown improvement through the use of various therapeutic approaches. Identifying these approaches that engage individuals with ASD is essential in facilitating opportunities for lessening the impact of symptoms. A recent CDC report indicates the prevalence to be 1 in 54 children are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (Roth, 2020). While the prevalence continues to escalate, the epidemiology has yet to be discovered. While there is no cure for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there are forms of therapy that have been proven to be successful in lessening the associated symptomatic behaviors. The most distinct classifiers related to ASD include sensory impairments, communication and speech delays, and restrictive, yet repetitive patterns of behavior or interests. This study intends to examine the parental viewpoint on correlations existing between equineassisted therapies (EAT) and communication skill improvements of adolescents with autism. Equine-assisted therapies have been found to be successful in the improvement of modality, communication deficits, and behavioral needs of individuals with disabilities. The parental viewpoint and input of such therapies has not been as stringently studied.
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2021
The Impact of Discontinue Criteria on Potential Gifted Students' Scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fifth Edition
The Impact of Discontinue Criteria on Potential Gifted Students' Scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fifth Edition
Dana Iera
Gifted identification varies across the United States between states, districts, and school psychologists. Although multiple measures of cognitive ability exist, one of the most popular tools is the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children- Fifth Edition, published i...
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Gifted identification varies across the United States between states, districts, and school psychologists. Although multiple measures of cognitive ability exist, one of the most popular tools is the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children- Fifth Edition, published in 2014. This standardized assessment measures cognitive abilities and is now in its fifth edition. The most notable difference is the use of five primary index scales, rather than four, that combine to yield a Full Scale IQ score. Another change is that the discontinue criteria are shorter for a few subtests within the measure. Although this leads to a shorter test administration time, many gifted advocates believe that this shortened discontinue criteria may underestimate gifted students' abilities by not allowing them to demonstrate knowledge beyond those three missed items (National Association for Gifted Children, 2018; Silverman and Gilman, 2020). The purpose of this study is to begin to explore how those shortened discontinue criteria on the Verbal Comprehension Index may or may not impact potentially gifted students’ scores and moreover, gifted eligibility. Understanding how these shortened discontinue criteria may or may not impact scores will help to guide districts and school psychologists into proper identification methods and criteria and a further understanding of the Verbal Comprehension Index on the WISC-V. This study will focus on the following questions: How do shortened discontinue criteria impact potential gifted students' scores on the Similarities subtest? How do shortened discontinue criteria impact potential gifted students' scores on the Vocabulary subtest? With limited verbal subtests, how does the WISC-V's shortened discontinue criteria impact potential gifted scores on the Verbal Comprehension Index? How do these discontinue criteria impact how school psychologists and schools determine eligibility?
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2021
Examining the Efficacy of Universally Delivered Social and Emotional Learning Curriculum, Second Step: A Mixed-Method Study of the Effects on Regular and Special Education Student Behavior and Teacher Instructional Competence
Examining the Efficacy of Universally Delivered Social and Emotional Learning Curriculum, Second Step: A Mixed-Method Study of the Effects on Regular and Special Education Student Behavior and Teacher Instructional Competence
Joseph Jablonski
Since the establishment of social emotional learning (SEL) as a conceptual framework to increase students’ prosocial and emotional competencies, research has been conducted to provide an evidence base to its programmatic effects. This study examined the efficacy of S...
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Since the establishment of social emotional learning (SEL) as a conceptual framework to increase students’ prosocial and emotional competencies, research has been conducted to provide an evidence base to its programmatic effects. This study examined the efficacy of Second Step, a universally delivered SEL curriculum. Evidence of efficacy is supplied through a mixed-method research design providing three separate data metrics for quantitative and qualitative analysis. The sample set was derived from the behavior data of 505 students who attended a suburban K-5 elementary school in northwest Pennsylvania for two consecutive years. Also included in the sample are 22 teachers who participated in a voluntary survey. Quantitative analysis was conducted through a quasi-experimental design utilizing a McNemar test to determine the statistical significance of negative behavior prevalence in comparing two school years. Additional quantitative data was supplied through a Likert-scale questionnaire. Contextual qualitative information was supplied from an open-ended survey. Through this study, it was determined that the Second Step SEL program had a statistically significant impact on the behaviors of students as well as an impact on the climate of the building. While teachers felt the stress of teaching the newly implemented SEL curriculum during the COVID-19 pandemic, results from the study suggest that the benefits of implementing the program outweighed this negative effect. Results also showed an impact on students in the special education emotional support subgroup. The evidence this study provides will help schools work to strengthen their students’ social, emotional, and behavioral capacities.
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2021
An Examination of Elementary School Librarians' Self-efficacy Beliefs in Serving Students with Disabilities
An Examination of Elementary School Librarians' Self-efficacy Beliefs in Serving Students with Disabilities
Jessica Jordan
The purpose of this study was to investigate the self-efficacy beliefs of elementary school librarians in meeting the needs of students with disabilities in the library classroom. Quantitative methods were used through the administration of a survey instrument previo...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the self-efficacy beliefs of elementary school librarians in meeting the needs of students with disabilities in the library classroom. Quantitative methods were used through the administration of a survey instrument previously developed and implemented in general classrooms (Dawson & Scott, 2013). The instrument evaluated five factors potentially impacting self-efficacy: (a) instruction, (b) professionalism, (c) teacher support, (d) classroom management, and (e) related duties. The theoretical framework outlined for the study was based upon Bandura (1977). As the work of Bandura focuses on perceptions, the survey instrument asked participants to rank their perceived abilities on 14 initial constructs and the five factors listed above. Participants (n=35) were recruited through a listserv designed for school librarians (K-12) within Pennsylvania. Due to the small sample size (n=35), Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) was utilized for data analysis. (Hair et al., 2017). Findings showed each of the five manifest variables captured in the survey instrument impacted elementary librarians’ perceptions yet the analysis of these factors as one body, the Higher Order Construct (HOC) was statistically significant. In using the PATH Model function of PLS-SEM, analysis showed that instruction, professionalism, and classroom management were statistically significant independently but HOC demonstrated greater significance. The study found that 50% of participants had a mean score of 4 or higher on the Likert scale used within the survey, indicating an overall average of participants having "some ability" or higher demonstrated lower levels of self-efficacy in meeting the needs of students with disabilities.
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2021
A Qualitative Analysis of Administrative Oversight of Inclusionary Environments in Secondary Classrooms
A Qualitative Analysis of Administrative Oversight of Inclusionary Environments in Secondary Classrooms
William Jordan
The position of principal has evolved into one with many responsibilities ranging from managerial to visionary leader. Federal legislation has placed an added layer of responsibility through the implementation of Public Law 94-142 which supported social justice refor...
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The position of principal has evolved into one with many responsibilities ranging from managerial to visionary leader. Federal legislation has placed an added layer of responsibility through the implementation of Public Law 94-142 which supported social justice reforms that were meant to include students with disabilities and provide an education for them alongside their non-disabled peers. The changes brought about by this legislation and its iterations, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and No Child Left Behind Act, have supported inclusionary actions taken by schools and placed importance on effectiveness of the programs used to educate all students. Despite more students with disabilities being included in general education classrooms, schools still struggle with supporting effective inclusionary programs. This study conducted an exploration of a principal’s decision making processes by gathering descriptions of their background experiences, leadership, and structural management of inclusionary environments. It offers insight into what inclusionary environments look like through the eyes of the principal. Research was conducted through a case study with three principals using phenomenological techniques. This study revealed four themes that provide a vibrant description of the inclusionary environments in these principal’s buildings. The principals interviewed in this study discussed their background experiences as teachers, their professional certification coursework, leadership approaches and the structural management of inclusion. Their insight can help one to think about inclusion as they do on a daily basis.
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2020
An Examination of Elementary School Librarians' Self-efficacy Beliefs in Serving Students with Disabilities
An Examination of Elementary School Librarians' Self-efficacy Beliefs in Serving Students with Disabilities
Jessica Jordan
The purpose of this study was to investigate the self-efficacy beliefs of elementary school librarians in meeting the needs of students with disabilities in the library classroom. Quantitative methods were used through the administration of a survey instrument previo...
Show more
The purpose of this study was to investigate the self-efficacy beliefs of elementary school librarians in meeting the needs of students with disabilities in the library classroom. Quantitative methods were used through the administration of a survey instrument previously developed and implemented in general classrooms (Dawson & Scott, 2013). The instrument evaluated five factors potentially impacting self-efficacy: (a) instruction, (b) professionalism, (c) teacher support, (d) classroom management, and (e) related duties. The theoretical framework outlined for the study was based upon Bandura (1977). As the work of Bandura focuses on perceptions, the survey instrument asked participants to rank their perceived abilities on 14 initial constructs and the five factors listed above. Participants (n=35) were recruited through a listserv designed for school librarians (K-12) within Pennsylvania. Due to the small sample size (n=35), Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) was utilized for data analysis. (Hair et al., 2017). Findings showed each of the five manifest variables captured in the survey instrument impacted elementary librarians’ perceptions yet the analysis of these factors as one body, the Higher Order Construct (HOC) was statistically significant. In using the PATH Model function of PLS-SEM, analysis showed that instruction, professionalism, and classroom management were statistically significant independently but HOC demonstrated greater significance. The study found that 50% of participants had a mean score of 4 or higher on the Likert scale used within the survey, indicating an overall average of participants having "some ability" or higher demonstrated lower levels of self-efficacy in meeting the needs of students with disabilities.
Show less
2021
A Qualitative Analysis of Administrative Oversight of Inclusionary Environments in Secondary Classrooms
A Qualitative Analysis of Administrative Oversight of Inclusionary Environments in Secondary Classrooms
William Jordan
The position of principal has evolved into one with many responsibilities ranging from managerial to visionary leader. Federal legislation has placed an added layer of responsibility through the implementation of Public Law 94-142 which supported social justice refor...
Show more
The position of principal has evolved into one with many responsibilities ranging from managerial to visionary leader. Federal legislation has placed an added layer of responsibility through the implementation of Public Law 94-142 which supported social justice reforms that were meant to include students with disabilities and provide an education for them alongside their non-disabled peers. The changes brought about by this legislation and its iterations, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and No Child Left Behind Act, have supported inclusionary actions taken by schools and placed importance on effectiveness of the programs used to educate all students. Despite more students with disabilities being included in general education classrooms, schools still struggle with supporting effective inclusionary programs. This study conducted an exploration of a principal’s decision making processes by gathering descriptions of their background experiences, leadership, and structural management of inclusionary environments. It offers insight into what inclusionary environments look like through the eyes of the principal. Research was conducted through a case study with three principals using phenomenological techniques. This study revealed four themes that provide a vibrant description of the inclusionary environments in these principal’s buildings. The principals interviewed in this study discussed their background experiences as teachers, their professional certification coursework, leadership approaches and the structural management of inclusion. Their insight can help one to think about inclusion as they do on a daily basis.
Show less
2020
Preventing Abandonment of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) Devices for Students with Autism: Parent Perspectives for Successful Implementation
Preventing Abandonment of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) Devices for Students with Autism: Parent Perspectives for Successful Implementation
Sheri Lake
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the perspectives of parents of students with ASD who use high-tech AAC in educational settings. Although the use of AAC in school settings has been studied, research has not narrowed its scope to focus on children w...
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the perspectives of parents of students with ASD who use high-tech AAC in educational settings. Although the use of AAC in school settings has been studied, research has not narrowed its scope to focus on children with ASD who use high-tech speech generating devices (SGDs) and receive special education services in school settings. By analyzing both qualitative and quantitative data, this study aims to create an initial framework for successful implementation of AAC for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. A mixed methods design was chosen for this study. Parametric and nonparametric statistics were utilized to test the theory that ease of use, device usefulness, and ease of learning the AAC technology positively influence parent satisfaction. Transcripts from semi-structured interviews were manually coded to identify qualitative themes related to parent satisfaction with their children’s AAC devices. Three qualitative themes emerged: parents feel like they are not equal members of the IEP team, parents act as self-advocates, and parents have difficulty trusting the recommendations made by the school team. Quantitative data analyses revealed a strong positive correlation between ease of use and satisfaction, ease of learning and satisfaction, and usability and satisfaction. Triangulation of data through qualitative analysis confirm that satisfaction is related to ease of use, ease of learning, and usability of the high-tech AAC device. Future studies should investigate parent perspectives that lead to abandonment of speech generating devices in different regions of the United States and across underrepresented groups. In addition, preservice programs in special education and speech-language pathology should be studied in order to determine the extent to which students entering the field have been taught to engage in family-centered practice. Finally, future research should investigate strategies that lead to successful implementation of speech generating devices with children with ASD.
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2021